Manual Imagine Hope: Aids and Gay Identity (Social Aspects of AIDS)

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Chapters organised around key questions that summarise the critical issues posed by researchers in the field, with summaries at the end. With its particular focus on outlining key similarities and differences across languages and what this cross-linguistic variation means for our ideas about language acquisition, Understanding Child Language Acquisition forms a comprehensive introduction to the subject for students of linguistics, psychology and speech and language therapy. Students and instructors will benefit from the comprehensive companion website that includes a students' section featuring interactive comprehension exercises, extension activities, chapter recaps and answers to the exercises within the book.

Material for instructors includes sample essay questions, answers to the extension activities for students and a Powerpoint including all the figures from the book. Simon Watney. Key features include: Cross-linguistic analysis of how language acquisition differs between languages A chapter on how multilingual children acquire several languages at once Exercises to test comprehension Chapters organised around key questions that summarise the critical issues posed by researchers in the field, with summaries at the end Further reading suggestions to broaden understanding of the subject With its particular focus on outlining key similarities and differences across languages and what this cross-linguistic variation means for our ideas about language acquisition, Understanding Child Language Acquisition forms a comprehensive introduction to the subject for students of linguistics, psychology and speech and language therapy.

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Richard Dyer. For around a hundred years up to the Stonewall riots, the word used for gay men was 'queers'. Simon Watney. Among the chief themes of this book are the representation of AIDS in the mass media and in the arts, and the encouragement of a wider understanding of the personal impact of AIDS and its so Sexuality Key Ideas. Jeffrey Weeks. An indispensible introduction to the sociology of sexuality, discussing its cultural and socio-historical construction, its relationship with power and the State's involvement in its rationa Robert Mills Randolph Trumbach H. Cocks Matt Cook.

Educating about HIV: prevention, impact mitigation and care : AIDS

Covering nearly a thousand years from the Norman Conquest to the internet age, this is a history rich in personalities, not only public figures like Richard Lionheart or Derek Jarman, but al Rebecca Jennings. Drawing on a range of historical sources - court records, newspaper reports, medical records, novels, oral histories, and personal papers - this book presents the extraordinary history of le That was just a certain fact.

As discussed in Chapter 3, living with HIV may mean living with an episodic disability where health can be interrupted by unpredictable periods of ill-health and disability.

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Episodes of ill health, ongoing symptoms such as nausea and diarrhoea, rigorous medication regimes, side effects of medication, frequent medical appointments, heightened stress, and fatigue are major barriers for some PHA in seeking and maintaining employment, or in maintaining the same level of work as they had previously. For me to hold down a job would be impossible. There's too many doctors' appointments, too many mood swings and depression, different side effects from the medication.

I've been taking them [HIV medications] for a full year and one of the side effects that was giving me a lot of trouble was that the medication was affecting my sleep patterns and when I already had a very hectic schedule that was really starting to catch up to me. The need for workplace supports was identified, including flexible schedules, the ability to take time off for treatment and recovery, a need for frequent washroom breaks, the ability to refuse overtime, the support of understanding managers and colleagues, and safe environments.

Many PHA find it difficult to coordinate medication regimes with work and family schedules. For those whose HIV status is not public, there are challenges in hiding their medication. PHA fear that the challenges of managing their health in the workplace, including time away due to medical appointments or illness, may jeopardize their employment. I have to worry about hiding it and how am I going to take my pills?

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Or having to worry about taking the pills and having the shits for an hour and can I get to the washroom which is way down the hall. Shift work can conflict with the taking of medication, causing difficulties in adhering to a strict schedule. I try to go with the schedule. I want to stay alive too, so I do take them [medications].

I try to take them on a regular basis. I know it fluctuates a lot. I try to shift them. I push them four hours each way depending which way I'm going. Newer HIV treatments are resulting in considerable improvements in symptom management and quality of life for PHA, and may mean that the challenges of managing medication regimes and side effects will be reduced. Further follow-up will be required to track the impact of these new treatments on PHAs' ability to manage their health at work.

Human rights legislation and labour and employment laws protect PHA from discrimination in the workplace; however, incidents of discrimination continue to occur. Although firing someone on the grounds of their HIV status is illegal in Canada, PHA may experience harassment and pressure that results in them deciding to quit their jobs. In a series of focus groups with a total of PHA, some reported that they had been restricted to positions where their interaction with the public was limited; for example, those in the hospitality or the food industry reported being moved away from food preparation and serving.

PHA also reported concern and suspicion about colleagues' attitudes, with some concerned that they were fired or treated poorly because of their HIV status, but with no concrete proof.


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  • I also think that if someone is found out to be HIV-positive that they are going to lose their job or whatever, or they're not going to be considered for a promotion or position because of their health. For many, disclosure is a choice - they can choose either to keep their status private or inform their colleagues.

    Many PHA successfully hold jobs without disclosing their status, seeing this as a personal health matter. Once made, disclosure cannot be retracted, so fears and concerns about stigma and discrimination leading to rejection and loss of employment are a reality for most PHA. I felt very compelled to tell my supervisor. I spoke to somebody in law and she put me into perspective by saying that my relationship with her and my doctor is a relationship bound by confidentiality, where my relationship with my boss is not really and things do leak and I wouldn't be protected.

    They don't want somebody with HIV coming back. I was management so I know the little tricks of the trade that were going on in the branches with some of these managers - no advancement [for a PHA]. Hiding one's status in the workplace can be stressful. In some cases when an individual discloses their HIV-positive status to their employer, managers have advised the employees to keep their status a secret in the workplace.

    I was on my feet all the time and by the end of the day I'm exhausted and tired, I go home, I go to sleep tired. I wake up tired. I mean hiding it all [HIV status and medications] just didn't work out well for me. I just decided to give up. Disclosure of HIV-positive status is necessary to be able to access certain disability insurance and healthcare coverage. This creates a dilemma for PHA: by disclosing they receive support, but lose their privacy and confidentiality; and by not disclosing, they lose the possibility of disability insurance and healthcare coverage.

    Furthermore, people may be forced out, or refused coverage, as the employer does not want to pay an increased amount for health insurance. Despite the challenges and barriers that PHA may confront in the labour force, most consider employment to be a positive and essential component of their lives that provides structure, purpose, satisfaction, confidence, and a way to participate in society.

    The ability of PHA to manage their health and cope with the challenges of living with HIV depends partly on their social environment - their family, peers, community, and workplace. Aspects of the social environment influence health outcomes among PHA and are fundamentally related to other determinants of health, including culture, gender, income and education level, social support networks, individual coping skills and behaviours, and access to health services. Much of the literature examining the social environment of HIV and AIDS highlights the persistence, nature, and consequences of stigma and discrimination for both those infected with, and affected by, the virus.

    Stigma is understood to build upon and reinforce discrimination based on race, gender, and sexuality. HIV-related stigma may also stem from ignorance regarding the way HIV is transmitted and fear of disease and death. Canada has a number of laws at the federal, provincial, and territorial levels that are designed, in part, to protect PHA from discrimination. The equality provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms protect individuals from discriminatory government action.

    Federal, provincial, and territorial human rights statutes prohibit discrimination by private actors, such as persons and corporations in areas such as employment, service delivery, access to facilities and goods, contracts, accommodation, and membership in unions or other associations. Despite existing protections, stigma and discrimination against PHA persist in Canadian society. Nearly one in three Canadians does not believe PHA should have the right to be sexually active.

    Canadian women exhibited slightly more tolerance with PHA than did Canadian men. In , a similar study was conducted to determine how attitudes and perceptions have changed, and found that substantial and increasing majorities of Canadians report being comfortable interacting with PHA. Sixty percent said they would be comfortable if their child was attending a school with someone who was known to have HIV, up five percentage points since Many PHA are members of marginalized social groups and engage in behaviours stigmatized by society.

    As a result, PHA often describe experiencing layers of stigma and discrimination. Hatred is a terrible thing, and when you're a victim - if you're Black or a religious designation, or a social or sexual orientation, and somebody picks on you and you don't know who it is [sic] So you've got to be very careful when you fall into a category [sic] imagine if you're Jewish with HIV and you're gay - you could be a triple target in certain areas of society.

    Or how Natives are picked on and HIV-related stigma is sometimes associated with negative perceptions of modes of HIV transmission, including unprotected sex and injection drug use. Some PHA have also identified illness and the changes in physical appearance resulting from lipodystrophy a side effect of certain medications where body fat is redistributed as a source of stigma. Negative attitudes surrounding sexual orientation add an additional layer of stigma for many PHA. Many men living with HIV have stressed the homophobic nature of discrimination they face.

    Some literature on stigma and PHA in Canada addresses differing experiences based on gender. My HIV status doesn't just affect me. It affects my job.

    Imagining biosocial communities: HIV, risk and gay and bisexual men in the North East of England

    It affects the people I work with. It affects my daughter. It affects the school she goes to and how the neighbourhood in general reacts to us and our family because I think there is such stereotypes about everybody and HIV. But I think that the ones about women are pretty strongly negative. And if you have negative thoughts or whatever about me it also impacts the rest of my life. PHA may feel that stigma and discrimination against them occurs at the institutional level of society.

    The system is very discriminating and especially to us immigrants. What I found quite challenging with the system [is] the fact that I'm an immigrant, and a single mother and a woman with HIV and a black woman was all working against me.